Other routes

Other routes

Western Mediterranean route

Sea passage from North Africa to the Iberian Peninsula and land route through the Spanish enclave of Ceuta and Melilla. Initially used by Algerian and Moroccan nationals to reach Spain, France and Italy. It is also a smuggling route for hashish and cocaine. Numbers dropped with high unemployment in Spain, but in 2014 conflicts and violence in Mali, Sudan, South Sudan, Cameroon, Nigeria, Chad and CAR caused large population displacements and added to the numbers migrating for economic reasons. Syrians account for half those using this route.

Numbers of migrants: 2015 January - July 6,698 (2014: 7,840)

Eastern Borders

The EU has a 6,000 km land border; Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Russian Federation with Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, (Norway), Poland, Romania and Slovakia – very challenging to control. There are some local border controls in place, for example Ukraine/Poland. This frontier is the prime one for smuggling contraband, vehicles, household goods, cigarettes, fuel, rather than people.

Numbers of migrants: 2015 January- July 717 (2014: 1,270)